The Christian cross symbol represents the Roman cross upon which Jesus Christ was crucified. As a religious symbol, the Christian cross represents the violent death and subsequent resurrection of the Messiah, Jesus, which is the basis of the Christian faith.
Origin & history:
Constantinople. Cultural differences and political rivalry created tensions between the two churches, leading to disagreement over doctrine and ecclesiology and ultimately toschism. Like Eastern Christianity, Western Christianity traces its roots, directly or indirectly, to the apostles and other early preachers of the religion. In Western Christianity's original area Latin was the principal language. Christian writers in Latin had more influence there than those who wrote in Greek, Syriac, or other Eastern languages. Though the first Christians in the West used Greek (such as Clement of Rome), by the fourth century Latin had superseded it even in the cosmopolitan city of Rome, while there is evidence of a Latin translation of the Bible in the 2nd century in southern Gaul and the Roman province of Africa.
With the decline of the Roman Empire, distinctions appeared also in organization, since the bishops in the West were not dependent on the Emperor in Constantinople and did not come under the influence of the Caesaropapism in the Eastern Church. While the see of Constantinople became dominant throughout the Emperor's lands, the West looked exclusively to the see of Rome, which in the East was seen as that of one of the five patriarchs of the Pentarchy, "the proposed government of universal Christendom by fivepatriarchal sees under the auspices of a single universal empire. Formulated in the legislation of the emperor Justinian I (527–565), especially in his Novella 131, the theory received formal ecclesiastical sanction at the Council in Trullo (692), which ranked the five sees as Rome, Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem."Over the centuries, disagreements separated Western Christianity from the various forms of Eastern Christianity: first from East Syrian Christianity after the Council of Ephesus (431), then from that of Oriental Orthodoxy after the Council of Chalcedon (451), and then from Eastern Orthodoxy with the East-West Schism of 1054. With the last-named form of Eastern Christianity, reunion agreements were signed at the Second Council of Lyon and the Council of Florence, but these proved ineffective.
The rise of Protestantism led to major divisions within Western Christianity, which still persist, and wars—for example, the Anglo-Spanish War of 1585–1604 had religious as well as economic causes.
In and after the Age of Discovery,Europeans spread Western Christianity to the new world and elsewhere. Roman Catholicism came to the Americas (especially South America), Africa, Asia, Australia and the Pacific. Protestantism, including Anglicanism, came to North America, Australia-Pacific and some African locales.Today, the geographical distinction between Western and Eastern Christianity is now much less absolute, due to the great migrations of Europeans across the globe, as well as the work of missionaries worldwide over the past five centuries.
Protestants tend to be more likely than Catholics to take a literal view of the Bible and to believe in hell. Protestants and Catholics also differ in their views on whether practices such as praying to the Virgin Mary or speaking in tongues fall within the Christian tradition. The vast majority of Latin American Catholics say that praying to the Virgin Mary is an acceptable Christian practice, while Protestants across the region generally reject this view. And while most Protestants see speaking in tongues as an acceptable part of the Christian faith, Catholics are divided on the subject.
1.The Classical/Traditional Latin Mass is not a product of the 16th-century Council of Trent.
2.The Traditional Latin Mass was not changed or replaced by the Second Vatican Council (1962-65).
3.The priest facing the people was not a practice introduced by the Second Vatican Council.
4.Mass in the vernacular (English or the language of the area) was not introduced by the Second Vatican Council.